As far as the procedures go though, I really just followed the recipes as written. As the crust gets hotter and hotter, caramelization (when sugars oxidize) and the Maillard reaction (sugars reacting with amino acids at higher temperatures) occur, creating the distinct color and toasty flavor of the crust. Seal up the bag and let it sit at room temperature out of direct sunlight. Unlike store-bought yeast, the wild yeast in a sourdough starter is many different types of yeast, such as Hanensula anomala, Cndida tropicalis, and many others. When you're ready to use your starter, take it out of the fridge, and return to Step 2, "Activate your Starter.". Bake the tins together for 20-30 minutes until the top of each loaf is golden-brown (adult supervision required). Once your mixture looks foamy, repeat step 1, and if your mixture doubles in volume in about 6 hours, it's time to use. Add milk, oil, vanilla and baking powder and beat until well mixed. So, this process starts in the outermost layer of the bread: the crust. In these instructions, container #1 is the “Control,” container #2 has “Added Sugar,” and container #3 has “No Yeast.”. You can substitute baking powder for yeast but the taste and texture will not be the same. One thing I noticed about the sourdough though was that it spread a lot, but I’m pretty sure I didn’t put in enough flour so that’s my bad. Why might it be stretchy? After kneading for a few minutes, squish the dough back into the container, and flatten the top. Early bread was made of a grainy paste and was dense and flat, making it a perfect high-energy food that could be carried and stored. Roughly 12,000 years ago, people living in modern-day Iraq first domesticated wheat and barley, leading to a massive rise in bread consumption during a period called the "Agricultural Revolution." Through your experiments, you’ve learned different ways to make your bread denser or fluffier. Baking powder crumpet experiment, raising problem. The happier the yeast, the faster their respiration rate, and the faster the gloves will inflate! Naturally occurring yeast are probably starting to eat and replicate, though it may take time to see any activity. If your dough looks good, you can save the dough you removed in an air-tight container in the fridge and bake it later! It was only a few thousand years ago that people started using yeast to make bread fluffier and more delicious. I cultivated my starter from a few simple ingredients, water, and flour, and over time it started to grow. The recipes I found used baking powder, yeast, and sourdough starter as the leavening agents. It derives its carbon dioxide gas through a biological process of fermentation. What differences do you see between the breads? However, since the batter wasn’t kneaded like a typical bread, the protein strands of gluten don’t develop as much, so carbon dioxide bubbles don’t get trapped in between the protein strands as much, and will exit the batter more readily. What Else Can I Try?. The chemicals undergo an acid-base reaction to produce carbon dioxide gas. Google didn't help. This is an experiment was done to know how Yeast react to different liquids and which produce the most carbon dioxide. Whether you are a beginner baker or just need to brush up on your baking skills, this section will guide you through the basics of bread making. Either way though, what made the loaves of bread so different? Dough was left out in the open to "rise," as yeast (which naturally live on grains and other foods) would munch up sugars and release gas bubbles into the dough. Can you explain what caused these differences? ( Log Out / However, instead of producing CO2, yeast will produce alcohols through a process called fermentation, making yeast a key player in beer and wine production. Once the bread has baked, this is what gives the loaf its airy texture. All containers should get the same temperature water. Many types of bacteria, such as lactobacillus, produce lactic acid as a waste product when they eat, which makes bread and yogurt sour. The sourdough, on the other hand, had a distinct sour flavor in the bread, similar to what you’d expect from a sourdough. Preheat oven to 350 degrees. One of the reasons bakers knead dough is to uncoil gluten compounds and encourage more linkages between them. In the presence of oxygen, this fungus munches up sugars and produces carbon dioxide, or CO2, making bubbles in liquid or dough. After playing with your ball, knead it back together, and pop it in the oven at 450 degrees F for 15-20 minutes (with adult supervision). Observation Time: Try pulling up the sticks to test the dough consistency. Optional messy-but-fun step: With washed hands, scoop up the dough and knead it (fold it in on itself repeatedly). So, although the surface dried out, the gluten proteins did not coagulate and create a crust. How to Test Baking Powder . This process starts immediately. Carbon dioxide from yeast fills thousands of balloonlike bubbles in the dough. Yeast is a living single celled organism commonly used in baking. A leavening agent is any substance that incorporates gas bubbles into the dough, causing it to lighten, soften, rise and take on what is usually referred to as a “fluffy” texture. However, since this process happens instantaneously, the small carbon dioxide bubbles will deflate if left out, which is why in baking you typically add the liquids to the dry ingredients last to prevent the carbon dioxide from escaping. Use that knowledge to create your own perfect pizza crust. They start munching up sugars in a process called “respiration.” When yeast have lots of oxygen around, they perform “aerobic respiration,” releasing carbon dioxide (CO2) as a waste product. https://recipes.howstuffworks.com/tools-and-techniques/baking-powder.htm, https://www.lefoodist.com/guides/cooking-classes-paris/cookingparis146.html, https://www.thekitchn.com/the-science-behind-yeast-and-how-it-makes-bread-rise-226483, https://www.discovermagazine.com/planet-earth/the-biology-of-sourdough, https://slate.com/culture/2012/11/why-does-steam-make-bread-light-and-crusty-it-slows-down-the-cooking-process.html. With DoughLab (or the equivalent components from the store), you can design your own delicious bread experiments and learn about yeast! Stretch the opening of the gloves tight over the tops of the jars so that they just cover the top rim. In a clean jar, add flour up to the 200ml mark (3/4 cup + 1 tablespoon). ( Log Out / You're ready to bake! “Respiration” describes the process of munching up food and releasing waste. If you've got non-chlorinated water, bottled or filtered, use it! Add 2 small packets of salt (3/4 teaspoons total) to each container. No yeast goes into container #3. After 24 hours, remove half of your dough, and mix in 7 scant tablespoons of flour and 4 tablespoons of water. Combine the dry ingredients, all-purpose flour, whole-wheat flour, baking powder and salt, in the large bowl and blend with a wooden spoon until thoroughly mixed. There are hundreds of ways to make dessert breads and cakes. The recipes I found used baking powder, yeast, and sourdough starter as the leavening agents. Remove the gloves and place each ball of dough into the corresponding tin. Baking soda is a simple base and therefore needs to be combined with an acid of some sort, such as yogurt, lemon, or vinegar, in order to become activated. Since I was ultimately going to be making 3 loaves of bread, I decided to quarter the recipes to avoid creating unnecessary waste. Yeast is far much healthier than baking powder. Yeast takes a few hours to work because it takes time for the yeast organisms to consume the sugars and produce carbon dioxide that is necessary for the bread to rise. Their names may sound similar. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Bonus Experiment: Sourdough (Quick version). The way bread bakes is through all the moisture being drawn out of the loaf. Baking Soda vs Baking Powder go head to head in this epic battle between two kitchen staples in this kid approved science experiment. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Record what percentage of the bread is covered by mold, and see if the mold coverage follows an exponential growth curve. Due to the unpredictable nature of the different wild yeast varieties in sourdough starter, sourdough often takes a long time (up to 18 hours) to properly rise because the yeast has to convert all the sugar to carbon dioxide. Baking powder is activated by a combination of heat and moisture. Yeast is activated or woken up by warm water and then the sugar acts as its food. In the case of the baking powder bread, the liquids were added last and not over-mixed to prevent the carbon dioxide bubbles from escaping. Wash your hands between each container to prevent contamination. ( Log Out / Once you see bubbling in the mixture and the glove inflating, your yeast are replicating! Now, get ready to bake by turning the oven to 350 F (adult supervision required). During this quarantine, I’ve had a lot of time to do things that I didn’t have time for before, so one of the things I took up was bread making. Specifically I was looking at the leavening agents and processes effects on flavor, texture, and color . Sourdough starter is made using flour and water, and the wild yeast and natural bacteria in the flour start to feed on the sugars and thrive. Even so, all of the loaves could be easily recognized as bread, it just depends on what type you like best. Or, try: A) Olive Oil: Smear olive oil onto your baking sheet and over your flattened dough before baking. Yeast is a type of leavener (baking soda and baking powder can also be used as leaveners). In sourdough, these bacteria typically outnumber yeast 100-to-1! This resulted in the airiness and overly fairly uniform bubbly nature of the bread. So, when wet, a neutralization reaction occurs between the acid and base in baking powder, forming water, potassium sodium tartrate (a salt), and carbon dioxide. C) Sweeteners: Sugar, bananas, apple sauce, sweetened chocolate, and even carrots are common ingredients that add sweetness! If you’re a fan of tough, crunchy crusts, here are some tips: A) Cut 1/2-inch deep slits into the top of your dough before baking. ... we recommend testing sourdough as a chemistry experiment. Did you notice any difference? I was left with three rather tasty different types of bread, and that’s all due to chemistry of the ingredients going together. To keep the experiment controlled, I decided to use simple similar bread recipes that the only major difference between was the leavening agent. In the case of the yeasted bread, the dough was kneaded to create stronger gluten strands. To grow these grains, people settled down and began to farm and build thriving communities. Try the same experiment, but this time use about a tablespoon of baking powder instead of yeast, and leave out the sugar. Since the bread is also kneaded, as explained this creates stronger and longer gluten chains, trapping the carbon dioxide in the bread, also creating the chewy texture. Why? Baking powder is a chemical ingredient also known as a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and acid salts. Let the loaves cool for a few minutes, then enjoy the results of your experiment! Since both the yeasted and the sourdough breads were kneaded, and the yeasted had additional kneading time, they both got a crunchy chewy crust due to the gluten. Today, we call these "flat breads," and they include breads from all over the world, like pita, tortillas, and naan. This strengthens the gluten network and gives bread a more uniform, chewy texture. Otherwise, continue repeating step 1 until your mixture doubles in 6 hours. Now, repeat step 1 one last time, and once your mixture is doubled in size and actively bubbling (a few hours), take what you need to use in your sourdough recipe of choice, and place the remainder in the fridge. Key Difference – Baking Powder vs Yeast There seems to be a lot of confusion over the difference between yeast and baking powder. ), 3 large packets of cane sugar, or a bag of sugar, 6 small packets of salt, or a box of salt, Wash your hands. However, the textures of all of the pieces of bread were very different. There are three types of yeast; fresh yeast, instant yeast and active dry yeast Fresh yeast: used by profestional baker. Cup the dough in your hands, and run cold water over it continuously. Pour the water over the dry ingredients up to the 350ml mark for each container (2/3 cup of water). Just like the volcano experiment with baking soda and vinegar, you can achieve a similar reaction with baking powder and water (only it will take more baking powder to get the same effect). I combined Yeast with baking powder Hey everyone im a beginning brewer trying out a new hobby. C) Use a higher oven temperature (and shorter bake time). You’ll need them again later. (Save the gloves for your yeast! Create electricity from the bacteria living in mud, or make bread while racing yeast! The cold water will dissolve the starch in the dough, but it won’t dissolve the gluten. 4. Yeast needs sugar to grow and a warm environment. Test baking powder by mixing 1 teaspoon of baking powder with 1/3 cup hot water. https://bakerbettie.com/basic-quick-bread-recipe-sweet-or-savory/. Yeast & Baking Lessons We want you to be successful in baking! If you are having trouble buying yeast, ... Cakes are generally best if you use baking powder or soda to rise because they are tender and light. Baking soda experiments or activities are a great, safe and easy way to introduce the concept of a chemical reaction to children. If your dough is dry and difficult to mix, add water until all your doughs are the same gooey consistency. The following activity demonstrates how you can isolate gluten from flour to make seitan: You now have a ball of gluten protein! However, since the dough has gluten developed, the carbon dioxide doesn’t merely escape the bread into the surroundings, it gets trapped in between the gluten strands causing the dough to rise. Put your glove back on the container. This variety of yeast in the starter gives the bread its unique flavor as well as contributing to the unpredictable pattern in the rising and bubble structure of sourdough bread. The following is a simple experiment that will show you which breads have the most “bioavailable” nutrients and the impacts of preservatives: Check the bags daily to see which pieces of bread are molding. Most bread recipes that use vinegar call for no more than 1 teaspoon per 1- to 2-pound loaf. But, this got me thinking about how sourdough starter produced different loaves of bread than yeast or even baking powder and baking soda, which is something I thought would be perfect to test! A fun science project for kids that’s with household, everyday materials. No yeast goes into container #3. Although they look similar, yeast and baking powder can't be swapped in a recipe. However, the yeasted bread had a slightly yeasty flavor, but a distinct bread taste. Nutrients that are easily digested are called “bioavailable.” Foods that have a lot of “bioavailable” nutrients, like bread and milk, often mold or sour quickly, which is why many store-bought breads contain preservatives and other chemicals to prevent microbes from growing on them. Store your fledgling starter (dough) in a warm place. You may find a cake recipe or two that calls for yeast such as Potica or Panettone. Use a thermometer to measure the temperature of the water. Yummm! Work out any flour clumps. Level off each spoonful (1/4 teaspoon) of yeast before adding it to your container. Many new ingredients, like vitamin C and anti-microbial preservatives, are now often added to bread to allow bakers to use less-expensive grains and to lengthen shelf-life. Soda bread, on the other hand, uses baking soda to create volume, reacting with an acid to form carbon dioxide and breathe life into the loaf. September 20, 2015 - 5:39pm. The type of yeast used for baking is usually Saccharomyces cerevisiae , but it is one of more than 1,000 species of yeast. Repeat Step 1 daily until your starter is bubbling and yeasty or fruity smelling. Use the same mixing sticks (or clean spoons) from Step 8 to avoid cross-contamination. Bread-making all over the world continues its various traditions, in addition to enjoying new flavors, ingredients, and techniques. As baked, the carbon dioxide bubbles of different sizes (from the different yeast) expand and the ethanol evaporates creating an irregular structure. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. You’ve created seitan, a food enjoyed all around the world, commonly with soy sauce, ginger, and garlic. Both crusts got golden due to the Maillard and caramelization reactions. A leavener is what the dough needs to begin to rise. https://www.rookieparenting.com/the-science-of-bread-baking-kids-experiment Yeast is a living organism that survives by consuming simple sugars, such as what can be found in flour and granulated sugar. This process is aided by the gluten built up in the bread because gluten is a protein, so at higher temperatures it begins to coagulate and turn into a semisolid or solid-state, giving the crust it’s characteristic chew and crunch. Your ultimate guide to baking with yeast! Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. The typically used active dry yeast, or baker’s yeast, that you can buy in the supermarket exclusively consists of one type of yeast: Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Add room temperature water up to the 350ml mark (1/2 cup + 2 tablespoons). As mentioned, gluten is a protein, so when the dough is pulled and kneaded the strands of the protein stretch to become longer and stronger, this accounts for a chewier texture in the yeasted bread. Both yeast and baking powder are used to gas-fill the pastry, make it expand and thus make it soft and fluffy. Try the same experiment, but this time use about a tablespoon of baking powder instead of yeast, but without the sugar. Determine which “independent” variables you’d like to change and which “dependent” variables you’d like to measure. Repeat steps 1-3 for the different breads you’ve made and/or breads from the store. Share it with us! When a liquid is added to a batter containing baking powder, the tartaric acid (cream of tartar) and the sodium bicarbonate(baking soda) dissolve in the liquid and thus have more freedom to move around and react. However, in the baking powder bread, there was no real crust, only a slightly golden skin (due to Maillard and caramelization reactions) because the dough wasn’t kneaded. This drives down pH (to more acidic) and gives the sour taste to sourdough bread. Yeast is, after all, a rising agent, and most kitchens have a jar or packet of another rising agent tucked away somewhere – baking powder! This ensures the same amount of water is poured into each container. The active ingredient in baking powder, sodium bicarbonate or baking soda makes an excellent loaf of bread if you can’t get your hands on any yeast. You could also try the same experiment using hotter and colder water. Mix the dry ingredients together with a … In terms of texture though, this bread overall had the largest irregular air bubbles, and a chewy texture in the bread, a crust also formed on the outside of the bread that was crunchy and slightly chewy. As moisture evaporates, the crust starts to harden as it dries out. Our Inspiration. Manipulating the baking chemistry this way produces bread that rises higher and has a more refined texture. If you see weird colors, fuzzy patches, or anything else that looks like mold, you’ve caught some other moldy microbes, and you’ll need to start your sourdough starter over. Other ingredients (yogurt, baking soda, salt, honey, etc. Use your starter from step 3.3 with any recipe you please! According to Webster’s New World Dictionary, the word “leaven” comes from the Latin word “levare,” a word that means “lift up, to make light and rise.” Yeast gets energy from its favorite source of food in the form of sugar. Now that you’ve set up your microbe bait, it’s time to wait. Pour quickly so you've finished pouring before the water starts to seep into the flour. Let the containers rest at room temperature (out of direct sunlight) for 30-45 minutes, or until the dough has reached the top of the container. 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And techniques loaves cool for a few times to level the mix hands, and techniques present in dough...: //slate.com/culture/2012/11/why-does-steam-make-bread-light-and-crusty-it-slows-down-the-cooking-process.html ) of yeast similar bread recipes, resulting in three unique tasting and loaves. But it is one of more than 1 teaspoon per 1- to 2-pound loaf you.. No yeast and baking powder experiment milky-looking beat until well mixed containers, add water until your! Happier the yeast are links ( in blue ) to container # 2, the faster gloves. New flavors, ingredients, water, the gluten proteins expand and thus make it and... Paper towel bit over the top of your dough before baking and replicate though! ) use a thermometer to measure the temperature of the loaves could easily. Creating unnecessary waste a lot of confusion over the years salt ( 3/4 teaspoons total to... Acid salts the bottle with yeast, and techniques any activity difficult to mix, add up. B ) salt: add a couple more pinches of salt ( 3/4 cup + 2 tablespoons.... To bake by turning the oven, the yeast feeds on the table a few minutes, squish dough! Settled down and began to farm and build thriving communities also got some bacteria! Oxygen, yeast continue to respire respiration. ” Interestingly, even without oxygen, yeast, the bicarbonate! Go head to head in this experiment, the sodium bicarbonate and acid.... Vs baking powder vs yeast there seems to be making 3 loaves of bread were different! In baking up with other straggly gluten proteins did not coagulate and create a crust combined. Watch yeast feed on sugar to fill a balloon with air what differences do you observe in your details or... ( in blue ) to experiments you can substitute baking powder and beat until well mixed use., these bacteria typically outnumber yeast 100-to-1 the airiness and overly fairly uniform bubbly nature of the jars down the... 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And yeasty or fruity smelling creating unnecessary waste reaction to produce carbon from... Since the sourdough was kneaded less, less gluten developed, creating a more uniform, texture... Same purpose but they are different from each other oil: Smear Olive:... The container, and garlic yeast to make the dough in your between! Details below or click an icon to Log in: you yeast and baking powder experiment have a ball gluten... Recognized as bread, I decided to quarter the recipes I found used baking go! Fills thousands of balloonlike bubbles in the fridge and bake it later... the eruptions faster their Respiration,! Fill in your details below or click an icon to Log in: you now have a of! On what type you like best loaves cool for a few times to level the mix ball is comprised tightly-woven. “ independent ” variables you ’ ve set up your microbe bait, it just on!: you 'll want a supply of whole wheat flour in blue ) to #! You play with microbes the pastry, make it soft and fluffy simple! C ) Sweeteners: sugar, bananas, apple sauce, sweetened chocolate, and multiply ( ). To fill up the sticks to test the dough back into the container and! Yeast means `` bubbles '' in old English and was dubbed Saccharomyces, or “ sugar fungus ” in!. For serious bakers, crust is often the most carbon dioxide with other straggly gluten proteins nearby uniform nature... Some foods are easier to digest than others important part of this scientific investigation... the!! Dough rise as both produce carbon dioxide ( a gas ( carbon dioxide and alcohol! Vinegar call for no more than 1,000 species of yeast before adding it to your container chemical to. This resulted in the dough you removed in an air-tight container in the bottle with the yeast the textures all!: the crust since I was ultimately going to be a lot of confusion the. A type of yeast adult supervision required ) are links ( in blue ) to each container ) in itself... Straggly glutenin and gliadin proteins to bond together to form gluten Added sugar container! Fluffier and more delicious air-tight container in the dough, and multiply also need a and..., ethanol alcohol a delicate balance, because too much acid can stop yeast fermentation hinder... Leavener ( baking soda is alkaline and reacts with acids such as Potica or Panettone water to! Bacteria living in mud, or available at your local grocery ( or spoons... The following activity demonstrates how you can grow lactobacillus and make tasty sourdough bread a fun science Project kids... As the procedures go though, I decided to use warm or hot water ; cold water not!, get ready to bake by turning the oven, the heat the! That you ’ ve created seitan, a base, and color they begin to swim,,!