"Constans II." In 654, however, Muawiyah renewed his raids by sea, plundering Rhodes. However, the latter resisted and Constans withdrew to Naples. Defeats to the Arabs continued as before, and the imminent loss of Alexandria allowed one Valentinos Arsakuni, a military governor of the Opsikion province, to capitalise on Martina’s unpopularity and take power for himself in September 641 CE. The former was the more serious as it was the richest province in the empire and the most important source of grain. Solidus of Constans II (from Dumbarton Oaks coin collection) The Themes in 668 AD from A History of the Byzantine State and Society by Warren Treadgold Period: 656-668 The Arabs imploded in a bloody civil war which would last until 661 CE and divert their attention from further foreign conquests. Rumours spread that the Byzantines were suffering the wrath of God, angry at the emperor’s incestuous marriage to his own niece Martina. A Byzantine fleet under the admiral Manuel occupied Alexandria again in 645, and the Alexandrians hailed him as a liberator, since the caliphate levied heavier taxes and showed less respect for their religion. Constans II (641–668) Pressures from beyond the empire’s border consumed the reign of Constans, grandson of Herakleios by his son Herakleios Constantine. Stanford University Press. Coin of the Rashidun Caliphate with figure of Constans II standing facing, holding cross-tipped staff and globus cruciger. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II), also called "Constantine the Bearded" (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), (November 7, 630 – September 15, 668) was Byzantine emperor from 641 to 668. Then he travels to the West making a new home for himself in Syracuse in Sicily. Mediaeval Greece. Constans was succeeded by his son, Constantine IV, who had already been crowned co-emperor in 654 CE and who would rule until 685 CE. https://www.ancient.eu/Constans_II/. Meanwhile, Constans’ campaigns against the Lombards in Italy in 663 CE did not make much headway, although Sardinia had been held in 645 CE. Thank you! Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 07 December 2017 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Solidus of Constans II (from Dumbarton Oaks coin collection) The Themes in 668 AD from A History of the Byzantine State and Society by Warren Treadgold ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Constans_II&oldid=996059562, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from September 2012, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from January 2019, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Imperator Caesar Heraclius/Flavius Constantinus Augustus, This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 08:49. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II), also called Constantine the Bearded (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), (November 7, 630 – September 15, 668) was Byzantine Emperor from 641 to 668. He organized the Anatolikon and Opsikion themes in Asia Minor against the Arabs, who continued to tear away at imperial possessions. One theory even has it that the last member of the family- the disastrous Justinian II- came up with it. By his wife Fausta, a daughter of the patrician Valentinus, Constans II had three sons: Byzantine Emperor of the Heraclian dynasty.  Before the battle, chronicler Theophanes the Confessor says, the Emperor dreamed of being at Thessalonika; this dream predicted his defeat against the Arabs because the word Thessalonika is similar to the sentence "thes allo niken", which means "gave victory to another (the enemy)". The truce that followed allowed a short respite and made it possible for Constans to hold on to the western portions of Armenia. Constans II, in response to this, imprisoned the pope and made sure he received. Pope Martin I had condemned both Monothelitism and Constans' attempt to halt debates over it in the Lateran Council of 649. Like so many of his predecessors, he faced endless revolts and usurpers and met his death at the hands of an assassin while taking a bath. Constans was, nevertheless, received by the new Pope Vitalian in Rome on a visit in 663 CE. Sometimes known as Constans Pogonatos (“the Bearded”), he came to the throne by a series of unlikely events and his empire was immediately challenged almost everywhere by the rising Arab Caliphate. The Popes were keen to maintain their own ascendancy over Constantinople in deciding matters of dogma and Martin excommunicated the bishop of Constantinople. Chang'an), its current ruler Taisson whose name meant "Son of God" (Chinese: Tianzi), and correctly pointed to its reunification by the Sui Dynasty (581–618) as occurring during the reign of Maurice, noting that China had previously been divided politically along the Yangzi River by two warring nations.. But he was a quick learner and a talented general. Constans led a fleet to attack the Muslims at Phoinike (off Lycia) in 655 at the Battle of the Masts, but he was defeated: 500 Byzantine ships were destroyed in the battle, and the Emperor himself was almost killed. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. by Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CC BY-SA) Constans II (aka Konstans II) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668 CE. With the beginning of the Byzantine offensives in the East and the Balkans in the 10th century, especially under the warrior-emperors Nikephoros II (r. 963–969), John I Tzimiskes (r. 969–976) and Basil II (r. 976–1025), newly gained territories were also incorporated into themes, although these were generally smaller than the original themes established in the 7th and 8th centuries. The emperor considered moving his capital to his new home for greater safety, but this met obvious disapproval from the aristocracy at Constantinople with the Senate even forbidding any imperial family members from joining the emperor in Sicily. In 648 CE Constans passed an imperial edict, the Typos, which was designed to pacify the opponents of Monotheletism (that Christ had a single will) in the Church and close the endless and harmful debate that had been raging for half a century. by Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CC BY-SA).  After the death of Constantine III's father Heraclius, Constantine ruled with his half-brother Heraklonas through Heraclius' second marriage to Martina. The debate ended when Constans was killed in his bath by one of his own military entourage on 15 September 668 CE, with the inglorious weapon, a soap dish. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Constans ordered Saburrus, the commander of his army, to attack the Lombards again, but he was defeated by the Beneventani at Forino, between Avellino and Salerno. Additionally the description : "A theme was a plot of land given to … Byzantine Empire, Constans II and Constantine IV, 13 April 654 - 15 July 668 A.D. Naturally, this live-and-let-live compromise satisfied few passionate participants in the dispute. Constans II (aka Konstans II) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668 CE. Add your article. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. "Constans II." Constans established the themata; dividing territorial command in Anatolia. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Sometimes known as Constans Pogonatos (“the Bearded”), he came to the throne by a series of unlikely events and his empire was immediately challenged almost everywhere by the rising Arab Caliphate. Last modified December 07, 2017. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Related Content The emperor attempted some sort of reconciliation and came bearing gifts which included a gold pallium or cloth; then he promptly stripped the city of as much bronze he could find, spiriting away statues and even the bronze roof tiles of churches and the copper roofing of the Pantheon. pp. Byzantine Empire, Constans II, September 641 - 15 July 668 A.D. (Or Heraclonas, April - Sep 641) Philip Grierson (DOC II) and Cecile Morrisson (Morrisson BnF) attribute this type to the short reign of Heraclonas, April - Sep 641 A.D. SH94501. Alexandria fell in 642 CE, and losses followed in Armenia in the same year. After the death of Constantine III's father Heraclius, Constantine ruled with his half-brother Heraklonas through Heraclius' second marriage to Martina. Struck circa 647-670. Constans II had little time to warm the seat of his throne before he, and the Senate acting as his regent, had to deal with the ever-expanding Arab Caliphate. While the Bulgars had thus deprived the empire of control in the north and central Balkans, the Byzantines could take comfort in the expeditions of 658 and 688/689 launched, respectively, by Constans II and Justinian II into Macedonia and in the formation of the themes of Thrace (687) and Hellas (695). Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II; Latin: Heraclius Constantinus Augustus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus; 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος Kōnstantinos ho Pogonatos), was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. In the long-running saga which split the eastern and western branches of the Church over ecclesiastical doctrine, the edict was condemned by Pope Martin I in 649 CE. At the time, and for several years, Emperor Constans II had been residing in Syracuse in Sicily, having left the capital Constantinople at the hands of his young son, co-emperor, and eventual successor, Constantine IV (r. 668–685).  Death and succession In 658, with the eastern frontier under less pressure, Constans defeated the Slavs in the Balkans, temporarily reasserting some notion of Byzantine rule over them and resettled some of them in Anatolia (ca. Constans responded by having the Constantinople Senate declare the Pope guilty of treason and exiling Martin to Cherson in the Crimea in 654 CE on the excuse that he had supported Olympios, the rebel governor of Byzantine Ravenna. Meanwhile, the advance of the Caliphate continued unabated. ... but his son and grandson (Constantine III and Constans II) are also possibilities. Constans owed his rise to the throne to a popular reaction against his uncle and to the protection of the soldiers led by the general Valentinus. Biography of Constans II (excerpt) Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II), also called Constantine the Bearded (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), (November 7, 630 – September 15, 668) was Byzantine emperor from 641 to 668. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. Sometimes known as Constans Pogonatos (“the Bearded”), he came to the throne by a series of unlikely events and his empire was immediately challenged almost everywhere by the rising Arab Caliphate. In 655 CE it did. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Not particularly popular (either at home or in Syracuse), subject to several rebellions, despised by half the Church and with too many failures on the battlefield, he would not be missed by many, but he had, at the very least, ensured there was still an empire to pass on to his successors. Constans was the son of Constantine III and Gregoria. Constans was the son of Constantine III and Gregoria.  The situation was complicated by the violent opposition to Monothelitism by the clergy in the west and the related rebellion of the Exarch of Carthage, Gregory the Patrician. The Battle Of The Byzantine Empire Essay 1427 Words | 6 Pages. Cartwright, Mark.  Constans is a nickname given to the Emperor, who had been baptized Herakleios and reigned officially as Constantine. Only by switching clothes with an ordinary seaman did Constans escape while the entire fleet (and the unfortunate seaman) were sent to the bottom of the Mediterranean. He also was the last emperor to become consul in 642,   becoming the last Roman consul in history. Perhaps predictably, at the first opportunity, 5,000 of the Slav soldiers defected to the Arabs in 665 CE. The Themes were said to be created by the emperor Constans II (r. 641-668) as early as he began his reign as he adapted to the change of the empire’s shrunken borders but saw that Constantinople was in a critical position of being invaded making him flee to Sicily until he was assassinated there, thus keeping the capital at Constantinople. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation.  In the same year, they raided Africa and killed Gregory.  These are recorded as having begun in the year 643 with an embassy sent by the king Boduoli (波多力, Constans II Pogonatos) to Emperor Taizong of Tang, bearing gifts such as red glass and green gemstones. He also was the last emperor to become consul … A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II; Latin: Heraclius Constantinus Augustus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus; 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος Kōnstantinos ho Pogonatos), was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. Cheetham, Nicolas. According to Warren Treadgold, the first themes were created between 659 and 661, during the reign of Constans II. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. With Constans II’s death in 668, Constantine IV became the senior emperor. The latter fell in battle against the army of Caliph Uthman, and the region remained a vassal state under the Caliphate until civil war broke out and imperial rule was again restored.  The Byzantine historian Theophylact Simocatta, writing during the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641), relayed information about China's geography, its capital city Khubdan (Old Turkic: Khumdan, i.e.  In 648 the Arabs raided into Phrygia, and in 649 they launched their first maritime expedition against Crete. In 667, Saborios was the governing general of the theme of the Armeniacs, covering the northeastern part of Byzantine Anatolia. Due to rumors that Heraklonas and Martina poisoned Constantine III, Constans II was named co-emperor. SH73336. The Sons of Constantine, AD 337-361: In the Shadows of Constantine and... Notebook: Coin Portraying Emperor Constans or Emperor Constantius II... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. His son Constantine succeeded him as Constantine IV. Sailing with a Byzantine fleet, the emperor was horrified to see an Arab armada bearing down on him off the coast of Phoenix (modern Finike) in Lycia. Constans II had little time to warm the seat of his throne before he had to deal with the ever-expanding Arab Caliphate. Bury saw in Constans II the creator of the Byzantine navy.1 Even if this assumption has been contradicted by some authoritative scholars, as H. Ahrweiler,2 other historians over the last century have agreed with it3 and this has been … However, Manuel squandered his time and popularity in plundering the countryside, and eventually the Arab army managed to force him to embark for home. Then, from 656 CE, relief came from an unlikely source. In 647 they entered Armenia and Cappadocia and sacked Caesarea Mazaca. In 659 CE a peace was signed between the two powers with the Byzantines having to pay a massive tribute. Pseudo-Byzantine types. From there, in 663, he continued to Italy. Web. On 15 September 668, he was assassinated in his bath by his chamberlain, according to Theophilus of Edessa, with a bucket. In a time where war was constant, the Byzantine army was a formidable force. In 644 Valentinus attempted to seize power for himself but failed. Exarch Olympius excused himself from this task, but his successor, Theodore I Calliopas, carried it out in 653. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. [verification needed] These histories also record that the Arabs (Da shi 大食) sent their commander "Mo-yi" (Chinese: 摩拽伐之, Pinyin: Mó zhuāi fá zhī), to besiege the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, and forced the Byzantines to pay them tribute. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Now the Emperor ordered his Exarch of Ravenna to arrest the Pope. 11 Jan 2021. The Byzantine Empire, c. 650 CE.by Justinian43 (CC BY-SA). Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II; Latin: Heraclius Constantinus Augustus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus; 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος Kōnstantinos ho Pogonatos), was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. Konstans II (tiếng Hy Lạp: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II) (7 tháng 11, 630 – 15 tháng 9, 668), còn gọi là Konstantinos Râu (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), là Hoàng đế Đông La Mã từ năm 641 đến 668. Heraclius (son of Constans II) Academic disciplines Business Concepts Crime Culture Economy Education Energy Events Food and drink Geography Government Health Human behavior Humanities Knowledge Law Life Mind Objects Organizations People Philosophy Society Sports Universe World Arts … Taking advantage of the fact that Lombard king Grimoald I of Benevento was engaged against Frankish forces from Neustria, Constans disembarked at Taranto and besieged Lucera and Benevento. Get the best deals on Constans II und Constantine IV, shop the largest numismatic marketplace at MA-Shops.com He attempted to end the Church’s divisive debate on Christ’s nature and will but succeeded in only antagonising the Popes and ensuring his name would be denigrated by Christian historians thereafter. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981. – 1643 C.E. In 663 Constans visited Rome for twelve days—the only emperor to set foot in Rome for two centuries—and was received with great honor by Pope Vitalian (657–672). In 647 CE the Arabs overran Carthage in North Africa and parts of Asia Minor, notably capturing Caesarea. Icons, that is images of holy persons, were an important part of... Monasticism, that is individuals devoting themselves to an ascetic... Pilgrimage in the Byzantine Empire involved the Christian faithful... Trade and commerce were essential components of the success and... A Short History of Byzantium by John Julius Norwich, Constantius II: Usurpers, Eunuchs and the Antichrist. Ông là vị hoàng đế cuối cùng giữ chức chấp chính quan vào năm 642. The emperor attempted some sort of reconciliation with the Pope & came bearing gifts which included a. Whether Constans II was a usurper is open to debate: he was crowned after Constantin. Constans II. Learn how and when to remove this template message, JSTOR: The Last Consul: Basilius and His Diptych, JSTOR: The Iranian Factor in Byzantium during the Reign of Heraclius, A history of the later Roman empire from Arcadius to Irene, "East Asian History Sourcebook: Chinese Accounts of Rome, Byzantium and the Middle East, c. 91 B.C.E. Cite This Work When Heraclius died in 641 CE, he had two heirs who ruled as co-emperors: Heraklonas (whose mother was Martina) and Constantine III (whose mother was Heraclius’ first wife Eudokia). Google Arts & Culture features content from over 2000 leading museums and archives who have partnered with the Google Cultural Institute to bring the world's treasures online. Continue Reading. Now Constans could turn to church matters once again. He attempted to demote his brothers from the imperial position, but this provoked a military revolt in the Anatolic Theme.  The same books also described Constantinople in some detail as having massive granite walls and a water clock mounted with a golden statue of man. But I think both opinions should be given, with greater weight on Constans II. He used the pause to strengthen his defenses and consolidate Byzantine control over Armenia. territory in 411, he captured the city of Vienne and put Constans to death. Home Crime Crime by century 7th-century crime 7th-century murdered monarchs Constans II. The captured Slavs from that campaign were forcibly relocated to Asia Minor and then conscripted into the Byzantine army. Then, in the winter of 662-663, he made his camp at Athens.. Constans II, also called Constantine the Bearded, was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. Cartwright, M. (2017, December 07). A few months later, Valentinos was removed and killed by a lynch mob who favoured a properly royal ruler, the son of Constantine III, Flavius Heraclius, better known by his nickname Constans. However, having attracted the hatred of the citizens of Constantinople, Constans decided to leave the capital and to move to Syracuse in Sicily. Maximos the Confessor, a vocal supporter of Martin and opponent of Monotheletism, was also exiled, in his case to Lazika on the eastern shores of the Black Sea. (1997). On his way, he stopped in Greece and fought the Slavs at Thessaloniki with success. Constans II using the centralized government of Heraclius to alter the system in which the military was supplied and payed, and to a degree establishing a system of military holdings. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. His subsequent moves in Calabria and Sardinia were marked by further strippings and request of tributes that enraged his Italian subjects. Constans' sons Constantine, Heraclius, and Tiberius had been associated on the throne since the 650s. Constans attempted to steer a middle line in the church dispute between Orthodoxy and Monothelitism by refusing to persecute either and prohibiting further discussion of the natures of Jesus Christ by decree in 648 (the Type of Constans). Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Constans_II/. Under Constans, the Byzantines completely withdrew from Egypt in 642, and Caliph Uthman launched numerous attacks on the islands of the Mediterranean Sea and Aegean Sea.  This Arab commander "Mo-yi" was identified by historian Friedrich Hirth as Muawiyah I (r. 661–680), the governor of Syria before becoming the Umayyad caliph. In 659, Constans II signed a peace treaty with the Rashidun Caliphate. While the Caliphate was busy deciding who should be the next caliph, Constans did not waste any time and invaded northern Greece. The nickname established itself in Byzantine texts and has become standard in modern historiography.  Other contacts are reported taking place in 667, 701, and perhaps 719, sometimes through Central Asian intermediaries. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Constans II and the Byzantine navy Cosentino, Salvatore 2008-04-01 00:00:00 SALVATORE COSENTINO/RAVENNA At the beginning of the twentieth century John B. p. 312. The Byzantine Empire was crumbling at the edges, there were revolts in North Africa and Italy, and Constans could have been forgiven for thinking it could not possibly get any worse. Heraclius had ruled as emperor since 610 CE, and his reign was a mixed one. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Whittow) trace the development of the themes no further back than Constans II. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. In 663 CE Constans took up permanent residence in Syracuse on Sicily. Academic disciplines Business Concepts Crime Culture Economy Education The legitimate line had been restored, but the new emperor was a mere 11 years of age and the empire was in disarray. Later that same year, his uncle was deposed by the general Valentinus, one of Heraclius’ most trusted generals, and Constans II was left as sole emperor. Due to rumors that Heraklonas and Martina poisoned Constantine III, Constans II was named co-emperor. The same year he concluded peace with the Arabs. In 659 he campaigned far to the east, taking advantage of a rebellion against the Caliphate in Media. In general most modern historians (e.g. Victory at Nineveh put the empire back on its feet, but the new threat was the Arab Caliphate which showed its intent by crushing a Byzantine army at Yarmuk in 636 CE. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. Treadgold, Warren. 649 or 667). In 649 CE Cyprus was attacked, one of the empire's major naval bases, and though the island remained a shared property thereafter, the Arabs managed to sack the capital Constantia and destroy the harbour installations. Rather ambitiously, the edict simply forbade any discussion on the issue: bishops would be dismissed and laymen flogged and exiled if they did. A brief usurpation in Sicily by Mezezius was quickly suppressed by the new emperor. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. Later that same year, his uncle was deposed by the general Valentinus, one of Heraclius’ most trusted generals, and Constans II was left as sole emperor. When Constantine died in mysterious circumstances a few months later, Martina was able to act as regent for her son Heraklonas, even declaring herself co-emperor. Although on friendly terms with Vitalian, he stripped buildings, including the Pantheon, of their ornaments and bronze to be carried back to Constantinople, and in 666 declared the Pope of Rome to have no jurisdiction over the Archbishop of Ravenna, since that city was the seat of the exarch, his immediate representative. The primary sources seem to favor Heraclius.