They handled the rigging and ropes during maneuvers and attended to the sounding line that determined the water’s depth. New York: E.P. Since her launching, a crew between 15 to 35 people have manned her across the seas and oceans around the world. This allowed galleys to navigate independently of winds and currents. According to historian Angus Konstam, the various sections of the galleon decks were named after castle elements. The ships pages also kept track of time by turning the sand clock every half hour and reciting psalms or litanies that were answered in chorus by the crew. Point Cost: 230 VP 1. A single captured prize could make a pirate rich--if he caught her. The General was the supreme commander of the fleet. Sea of Thieves Dev Explains Why the Maximum Crew Size Is 4 Players ... One player could now sail a four-person galleon alone, using the game's "Make Friends" emote to manually gather a crew… 2014. By the late 1700’s indios from the Philippine islands were valued for their seamanship. The carpenter, caulker and diver made up the repair team of the ship. “The arrival of the Spanish galleons in Manila from the Pacific Ocean and their departure along the Kuroshio stream (16th and 17th centuries),” in Journal of Geographical Research. In the Mediterranean, oared galleys were common as fighting ships, and by the early 16thcentury these carried cannons at the front. It should be noted that Guam at the time was considered to part of the Philippine Islands and it is likely that someone from Guam served onboard one of the ships used in the Manila Galleon trade. 47:17-38. On the other hand, the versos, with their swivel-mount and faster breech-loading mechanisms, were effective and flexible for both solid-shot and grapeshot. MGTR Personnel When the efforts of the carpenter and the caulker were not sufficient to repair a leak or free a blocked rudder, the diver would have to attempt to repair it either at sea or in port depending on the severity of the problem. In essence, the Spaniards tended to give precedence to boarding actions over artillery duels, possibly because their axiom revolved around their well-trained infantry who could perform better in melee scenarios. If we go by the aforementioned ratio-based formula, the very same vessel would have additionally carried around 120-125 soldiers onboard. Yet as stalwart as the galleon appeared, she was actually quite fragile when pitted against Mother Nature, who succeeded in wrecking and sinking the galleons. 11, Issue 1. A good sailor was one that could thread a cable through an anchor ring or deploy a sail in storm conditions. 1940. The youngest of the crew were the pages or ship’s boys. Gunners were expert sailors that had mastered the use of the cannon. Quebec: Levesque Publications. Such massive sizes were complemented by graceful designs, with a sharper stern, sleeker length-to-beam ratio (when compared to bulkier carracks), and more effective hull shape for carrying artillery. These individuals conceivably could have engaged with the CHamoru people in interactions of trade and cultural exchange under various circumstances. Galley, large seagoing vessel propelled primarily by oars. While it cannot maneuver well like the smaller Sloop, the Galleon is unmatched in firepower and speed. 12 Fighters 8. Arena crews act very similar to open and closed crews. The pilot was responsible for the navigation of the ship, ensuring that the vessel safely reached its destination. 1 Build info 1.1 Additional Components 2 Additional info 2.1 Base Values 2.2 Level increment 3 Gallery Once you have built a Large Shipyard, you will have the option to build the Skeleton for the Galleon. Virtually all types of galleys had sails that could be used in favorable winds, but human effort was always the primary method of propulsion. Essentially, this translated to a Spanish crown’s near monopoly on the transatlantic trade route that not only covered coins and ingots of silver and gold but also a wealth of other valuable items like emeralds and pearls. The master was in charge of the financial and administrative aspects of the voyage. Unfortunately, in spite of the many modifications (both structural and organizational) made on the Spanish galleon, naval warfare in the decades of the mid 17th century changed significantly in terms of formations and maneuvers. In this case, the page was exclusively at the service of his protector, unlike “ship’s pages” that were at the service of the entire crew. http://www.sdmaritime.org. The adoption of such tactics translated to ships being used as floating artillery platforms, thereby resulting in the design of heavier vessels with more number of guns – better known as the ‘ship of the line’. As a result, many indios of Filipino and Southeast Asian origin made up the majority of the crew. In essence, it can be surmised that the galleon design was inspired by the combination of both the maneuverability of caravels and the hefty nature of carracks, bolstered by the millennia-old tradition of shipbuilding along the Mediterranean coast. Smaller galleons functioned with a crew of 50, while the crew of the larger galleons could number more than 400. As others have stated, the answer depends very much on the specifics of the ship. Suffice it to say, the canones and culebrinas (subdivided into various weights and sizes) were the mainstays of the Spanish galleon; and the capacity of the vessel itself often mirrored the number of guns on board. Described as ‘steaming like hell and stinking like the devil’ by one Spanish passenger in 1573 AD, the sullied water and the residues even had the tendency to attract rats – one of the major health risks inside ships during the period. 2007. For most ships of the era, much of the wastewater, sea-water, and human excrement were collected in the bilge area of the vessel – which corresponded to the space below the hold. Now while from the mathematical perspective, many of the galleons were possibly undermanned in regards to their weight, the available space for crew members onboard had always been cramped. These multi-decked ships, with their three masts and fore-and-aft rig, were designed as warships with both cargo and troop-carrying capacity. Crew size depended on the size of the galleon. Coming to the shipbuilding of Spanish galleons, like other European nations, Spain also made practical changes to the operational ambit of the industry. In both respects, it is comparable to the frigate. Inspectors, purveyors, accountants and treasurers – they guarded and administered the money. If we go by the aforementioned ratio-based formula, the very same vessel would have additionally carried around 120-125 soldiers onboard. “What Really Made the World go Around? And while their Mediterranean origins are undeniable, galleons were also developed by northern European powers of the time, thereby signifying the effectiveness of the vessel design and its armed capability. The galleons that passed through the Marianas carried scores of crew members in addition to soldiers and colonial or mission helpers on their way to the Marianas and the Philippines. For example, two galleons, the Santisima Trinidad (in 1754 and 1755) and the Nuestra Señora del Rosario (1749) had crews of over 384, as presented in the table which you can access by clicking the link below. Typically 130 feet (40 meters) along the keel and 30 feet (9.1 meters) across the beam, galleons had three full masts and three decks that could hold a maximum of 800 crew and passengers. According to historian Angus Konstam, the early 16th century was a period of innovation for ship designs, with the adoption of better sailing rigs and onboard artillery systems. Dutton & Co., Inc. Searles, USN Commander P.J. As the time passed, more and more robust clipper ships were made with iron keels and strong inner frame work. They also made use of lateen-rigged sails. How many sails does the ship have? Mangilao, GU: Micronesian Area Research Center, University of Guam. Caribbean Tales - Ships - Galleon. So without further ado, let us take a gander at ten things you should know about the history and evolution of the galleon – the exemplary warship of the 16th-17th century. Also, because finding skilled Spanish seamen became a problem, some of the ships officers were foreigners. To provide an example, a 450 toneladas galleon built in 1628 had a paltry average of just 15 sq ft per person on the ship. The reduction in their war-capability possibly also reflects how the Spaniards faced little to no opposition on their maritime trade routes, especially during the period between the 1590s till 1620s. By this time, the caravel was the highly-maneuverable sailing ship used for exploration, while larger carrack (or the Mediterranean equivalent – the nao, with slightly different features), based on the design of cogs, appeared as the dominant warship and merchant’s vessel for many a European navy. The galleon had castles at fore and stern that were usually armed with a total of three large weapons (ballistae or catapults, for example). The so-called “captain” would travel as a passenger with no specific duties. Yachts. By Chris Caswell. Whereas earlier patterns entailed the experienced (but still personal) judgment of the generational shipbuilders, late 16th and early 17th centuries brought forth the ideals of mathematical precision and measurements that dictated the flow of work and design elements of maritime vessels. “Spanish Galleons.” Guam Recorder, March – August 1940. Home » Blog Posts » Military » Spanish Galleon: 10 Things You Should Know. 8 Riggers 7. To that end, records of the Spanish navy from the early 17th century show that each galleon had an average of 90 to 100 crew members, excluding the soldiers. 1 Spotter 4. He needed to be able to predict a storm and have the theoretical knowledge to chart a course, and calculate his position using mathematical formulas and computations. But after the momentous defeat of the Armada, there was an overhaul of the management of the galleon guns. According to Pablo E. Perez-Mallaina in Spain’s Men of the Sea, the captain’s sole duty was to defend the ship from enemy attack. The size of a clipper ship varied according to the requirement of the cargo. One of the team members remembers hearing about some formula that looked at the ratio of cycle time to takt time to come up with the, so-called, optimal crew size. King Philip III (who reigned from 1598-1621 AD) aimed to directly control the coin (specie) shipments from the Americas to Spain by stipulating how the cargo should only be transported via his royal galleons. On the slightly brighter side, especially in Spanish circumstances, their predominantly Mediterranean diet did guard against the onset of scurvy, which was called the ‘Dutch Disease’. What kinds of people made up these galleon crews? The Manila Galleon. Princess Yachts Adds ElectroSea’s New Clearline System to Yachts Over 90 Feet. Suffice it to say, the sleeker galleon was ironically anachronistic, with the focus of shipbuilders once again shifting to the bigger warships with broadside artillery platforms. However, this seemingly ambitious phase of shipbuilding was only transitory – since the Spanish crown decided to ‘refocus’ on the commercial potential of the galleon. Spanish officials in Manila found it increasingly difficult to find men to crew their ships, especially for the long and arduous return voyage to Acapulco. Though its exact origins are uncertain, the galleon design combined distinct features of ships from the Mediterranean and northern Europe – two regions in which the Spanish found themselves fighting. Vol 1-55. This design caused the Galleon to pitch and roll more easily than other ships. Mortality rates were high, especially in the early years of the Manila galleon trade. Such alterations rather reflected on many of the naval battles and encounters till the late 1630s – with the Spanish galleons showcasing their mettle (often buoyed by resourceful commanders) in numerous engagements both in the Americas and European waters. Average speed is 7 knots. The boatswain mate was primarily charged with being in command of the ships auxiliary craft. Some of the crew members were shipwrecked in the islands, and some chose to stay and married CHamoru women. McCarthy, William J. The Phoenicians were apparently the first to introduce the bireme (about 700 bc), which had two banks of oars staggered on either side She served as a hospital ship after 1791, and was finally broken up in 1813. Suffice it to say, such cramped conditions spelled complications when it came to the sanitation of the galleon. They set the course for the ship by watching the trim of the sails and the compass while implementing the orders of the pilot. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press. These ships were also progressively used as escort vessels (in place of the ponderous naos) for the naval convoys that traveled between Spain and the Americas. 20: Bibliography of Micronesia, ships through Micronesia, Cumulative Index. Minimum Cost: 130 VP Mass: 60,000 Max Thrust: 30,000 Max Speed: 15 km/h 1. In 16th century Spanish circles, the basic rule prescribed by shipbuilders and the administration entailed how each ship should carry one person per tonelada of its weight. Stats . He needed to ensure that all the material and human resources required to reach its destination were obtained and that the passengers and cargo were delivered in good condition. With the size of the ship, the number of crew members on board the ship also varied. This unstable employment led many to seek outside sources of income. : Indio Contributions to the Acapulco-Manila Galleon Trade,” in Explorations a graduate student journal of southeast Asian studies. Essentially, this is a 500 ton galleon, with length overall reaching 160 ft. and beam 32 ft. Four masts hold 6 sails which measure almost 11,000 square foot. The general and admiral of each fleet was first selected for each expedition by the House of Trade and confirmed by the Spanish monarch and the Council of the Indies. RealmofHistory(C)2019. Ideal crew numbers were probably not often reached but ships had always started the journey with over the minimum number of crew needed in order to account for the loss they will sustain on the journey. Vol II. She served as a hospital ship after 1791, and was finally broken up in 1813. Another source of crewmembers were deportees, prisoners and other undesirables from Spain and the colonies. The vision here is that the competition here will be fairer for everyone. It was not uncommon for a ship to arrive in Manila from Acapulco with only a fraction of their crew still alive. Quezon City: In press. A new Ship is automatically spawned when a player or team of players f… Levesque, Rodrique, Compiler, Editor and Translator. However, the transatlantic routes also brought forth their fair share of logistical challenges – with the primary one pertaining to how early 16th-century Spanish merchant ships had to operate on their own in those dangerous voyages. 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