What was the largest impact made by Hellenistic culture? Other scholars operating under Ptolemy's aegis included the mathematician Euclid and the astronomer Aristarchus. Alexander the Great conquered Persian-controlled Egypt in 332 BC during his campaigns against the Achaemenid Empire. Although Egypt was a prosperous kingdom, with the Ptolemies lavishing patronage through religious monuments and public works, the native population enjoyed few benefits; wealth and power remained overwhelmingly in the hands of Greeks. Antigonus then tried to invade Egypt but Ptolemy held the frontier against him. [74] Maintaining a fleet of this size would have been costly, and reflected the vast wealth and resources of the kingdom. Military leadership and the figure of the king and queen were central for ensuring unity and morale among multiethnic troops; at the battle of Raphai, the presence of Ptolemy was reportedly critical in maintaining and boosting the fighting spirit of both Greek and Egyptians soldiers. The Ptolemies drained the marshes of the Faiyum to create a new province of cultivatable land. [61], The Ptolemaic Kingdom was considered a major naval power in the eastern Mediterranean. According to Jewish legend, the seventy wrote their translations independently from memory, and the resultant works were identical at every letter. A thesis submitted for the degree of Master of Philosophy. itself lasting from 43 BCE until 332 BCE. Aristarchus. Ptolemy's first wife, Arsinoe I, daughter of Lysimachus, was the mother of his legitimate children. The green areas were lost to the, Head Attributed to Arsinoe II, depicted as an Egyptian divinity. On his death in 116 BC he left the kingdom to his wife Cleopatra III and her son Ptolemy IX Philometor Soter II. After the death of their father, Cleopatra VII and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII inherited the throne and were married. Cosmopolitan and flourishing, Alexandria possessed a varied population of Greeks, Egyptians and other Oriental peoples, including a sizable minority of Jews, who had their own city quarter. This strategy not only helped to legitimize their rule, but also placated the general population. In 44 BC, Caesar was murdered in Rome by several Senators. [68] Notwithstanding an early crushing defeat at the Battle of Salamis in 306 BC, the Ptolemaic navy became the dominant maritime force in the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean for the next several decades. Alexander conciliated the Egyptians by the respect he showed for their religion, but he appointed Macedonians to virtually all the senior posts in the country, and founded a new Greek city, Alexandria, to be the new capital. In 311 BC, a peace was concluded between the combatants, but in 309 BC war broke out again, and Ptolemy occupied Corinth and other parts of Greece, although he lost Cyprus after a naval battle in 306 BC. This was only curtailed nineteen years later when Ptolemy V Epiphanes (205–181 BC) succeeded in subduing them, though underlying grievances were never extinguished, and riots erupted again later in the dynasty. No further mention is made of Cleopatra and Antony's sons in the known historical texts of that time, but their daughter Cleopatra Selene was eventually married through arrangement by Octavian into the Mauretanian royal line. None were more influential than Alexandria of Egypt however. [62] Some modern historians characterize Egypt during this period as a thalassocracy, owing to its innovation of "traditional styles of Mediterranean sea power", which allowed its rulers to "exert power and influence in unprecedented ways". [27] Early portraits of the Ptolemies featured large and radiant eyes in association to the rulers’ divinity as well as general notions of abundance.[40]. Thucydides, The History of the Peloponnesian War, 5.34.6-7 & 9. By the second and first century, misthophoroi were mainly recruited within Egypt, notably among the Egyptian population. The Jews who lived in Egypt had originally immigrated from the Southern Levant. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. Egyptian nationalism reached a peak in the reign of Ptolemy IV Philopator (221–205 BC), when a succession of native self-proclaimed "pharoah" gained control over one district. The multiethnic nature of the Ptolemaic army was an official organizational principle: soldiers were evidently trained and utilized based on their national origin; Cretans generally served as archers, Libyans as heavy infantry, and Thracians as cavalry. Although the backpillar and the goddess's striding pose is distinctively Egyptian, the cornucopia she holds and her hairstyle are both Greek in style. Ptolemy XIII and his advisors fled the palace, turning the Egyptian forces loyal to the throne against Caesar and Cleopatra, who barricaded themselves in the palace complex until Roman reinforcements could arrive to combat the rebellion, known afterward as the battles in Alexandria. Egyptian priests and other religious authorities enjoyed royal patronage and support, more or less retaining their historical privileged status. Him a son, Ptolemy VI has also reasserted Ptolemaic control over Egypt, notably the... 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